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15/Oct/2018
"Polyurethanes Technical Conference" shows more sustainable alternatives for polyurethane industry
On 1 - 3 October 2018, the 61st annual "Polyu
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12/Oct/2018
Conference "Fires in Vehicles"​ reveals that fire safety still needs to be improved in busses and electric cars
On 3 and 4 October 2018, the 5th biannual "Fi
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14/Aug/2018
New article on Recycling of Halogen-Free Flame-Retardant Plastics
Kunststoffe international 2018/08, PAGE 39 –
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23/Jan/2018
AMIs „Fire Resistance in Plastics“, 2017
The 12th international Fire Resistance in Plastics
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06/Oct/2017
Fraunhofer LBFs and PINFAs research activities on the recycling of plastics containing halogen free flame retardants
Recycling is an important issue with regard to the
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01/Sep/2017
New pinfa video: How effective are flame retardants for fire safety?
A new video from PINFA, the Phosphorus, Inorganic
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Phosphorus

Mode of action: formation of a solid charred surface layer of phosphorus compounds and in specific cases interruption of the radical chain process in the gas phase.

Phosphorus-containing flame retardants primarily act in the solid phase of the polymer. The flame retardant is transformed into phosphoric acid by thermal degradation, and water is released from the substrate in the solid phase.


A protective layer is developed by the polyphosphoric acid formed and by subsequent charring. The protective layer consists of interpenetrating networks of carbon and phosphorus oxides.


Specific phosphorus flame retardants such as the metal phosphinates may also act in the gas phase by the formation of P and PO radicals interrupting the radical chain mechanism of the cumbustion process.


Important phosphorous-containing flame retardants are:

Resorcinol bis (diphenyl phosphate) (RDP) is mainly used to flame retard PC/ABS blends.


Triaryl phosphates are used for many applications in thermoplastics.


Metal phosphinates are increasingly used in glass fiber reinforced polyamides and polybutylene terephthalate.


9,10-Dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and its derivates are used in polyester fibers and increasingly in printed circuit boards.


Trischloropropyl phosphate (TCCP) is mainly used in polyurethane flexible foams.


Ammonium polyphosphate (APP) is applied in intumescent formulations, polypropylene and thermosets such as unsaturated polyesters.


Red phosphorous is mostly used in polyamides.