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04/Aug/2017
Recycling of plastic waste - curse or a blessing?
In our fast-paced „throwaway society“
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31/May/2017
Plastics for E&E applications, “fuse box meets dryer” 2017 in Würzburg
As in previous years „Kunststoffzentrum (SKZ
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01/Aug/2016
pinfa's first workshop in China confirms interest in halogen free FRs
In June 2016, over 250 people from academia, indus
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02/Nov/2015
1st International Asia-Oceania Symposium on Fire Safety Materials Science and Engineering (AOFSM’1 2015)
The 1st International Asia-Oceania Symposium on Fi
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19/Oct/2015
European fire tests for cables in building and CE-marking
In 2008, in the context of the Construction Produc
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02/Sep/2015
Electrical fires and fire safety requirements for E&E equipment
In a U.S. statistical overview from NFPA[i] on ele
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Bromine (chlorine)

Mode of action: interruption of the radical chain mechanism of the combustion process in the gas phase:

The high-energy OH and H radicals formed by chain branching in the fire are removed by the halogen-containing flame retardant as follows:


2. Formation of hydrogen halides (HX)


1. Release of halogen radicals (X*=Cl*, Br*) from the flame retardant (R-X)


3. Neutralization of energy-rich radicals


Important brominated flame retardants are:

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA). It is mainly used as a reactive component in printed circuit boards.


Decabromdiphenyl ether (Deca-BDE). It is a universally used flame retardant for all plastics and textiles. In Europe, however, it has been banned for the electrical/electronics sector (RoHS Directive). In the USA, the production of Deca-DBE will be discontinued soon.


Hexabromcyclododecane (HBCDD) is mainly used in polystyrene foams (EPS ans XPS). For environmental and health reasons, it will no more be used in Europe as of 2015 (REACh).


The most important chlorinated flame retardants are:


Dedecachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (Dechlorane) is used in polyamides.


Chloroparaffins are used as liquids in thermoplastics, thermosets and elastomers.