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pinfa's first workshop in China confirms interest in halogen free FRs
In June 2016, over 250 people from academia, indus
1st International Asia-Oceania Symposium on Fire Safety Materials Science and Engineering (AOFSM’1 2015)
The 1st International Asia-Oceania Symposium on Fi
European fire tests for cables in building and CE-marking
In 2008, in the context of the Construction Produc
Electrical fires and fire safety requirements for E&E equipment
In a U.S. statistical overview from NFPA[i] on ele
prEN 16733: Standard draft for testing and classifying the propensity of construction products to undergo continuous smouldering
In the past, the smouldering of construction produ
15th Conference on „Fire Retardancy and Protection of Materials, FRPM 2015”
The 15th Conference on „Fire Retardancy and

Mode of action


Flame retardants may slow down or even interrupt the combustion process by physical or chemical action in the solid, liquid or gas phase. They interfere during heating, decomposition, ignition or flame spread with the course of the fire. The most important processes are:

  • Physical action by cooling (endothermic process of FR decomposition) or diluting the substrate in the gas phase (i.e. formation of water) and the solid phase (alumina trihydrate and magnesium hydroxide), or by coating the substrate (shielding it against the attack of oxygen and heat) with phosphorous and nitrogen compounds.

  • Chemical action in the gas phase interferes with the combustion processes by eliminating the high energy H and OH radicals by halogen halides from halogenated flame retardants, metal halogen compounds from antimony trioxide, and phosphorous-containing fragments from phosphorous flame retardants (“flame poisoning”).

In the solid phase, the flame retardant forms a carbonaceous layer on the surface of the polymer by dehydration, formation of double bonds, thus initiating cyclization and cross-linking (phosphorous, nitrogen compounds, intumescent systems).