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15/Oct/2018
"Polyurethanes Technical Conference" shows more sustainable alternatives for polyurethane industry
On 1 - 3 October 2018, the 61st annual "Polyu
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12/Oct/2018
Conference "Fires in Vehicles"​ reveals that fire safety still needs to be improved in busses and electric cars
On 3 and 4 October 2018, the 5th biannual "Fi
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14/Aug/2018
New article on Recycling of Halogen-Free Flame-Retardant Plastics
Kunststoffe international 2018/08, PAGE 39 –
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23/Jan/2018
AMIs „Fire Resistance in Plastics“, 2017
The 12th international Fire Resistance in Plastics
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06/Oct/2017
Fraunhofer LBFs and PINFAs research activities on the recycling of plastics containing halogen free flame retardants
Recycling is an important issue with regard to the
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01/Sep/2017
New pinfa video: How effective are flame retardants for fire safety?
A new video from PINFA, the Phosphorus, Inorganic
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Intumescent flame retardant systems

Mode of action: formation of a voluminous, insulating protective layer through carbonization and simultaneous foaming

Intumescent systems puff up to produce foams. They are used to protect combustible materials such as plastics or wood, and those like steel, which lose their strength when exposed to high temperatures, against the attack of heat and fire.

Basically, intumescent flame retardant systems consist of the following:
1. "Carbon" donors (e.g. polyalcohols such as starch, pentaerythritol)
2. Acid donors (e.g. ammonium polyphosphate)
3. Spumific compounds (e.g. melamine)


Process of intumescent mechanism


1. Softening of the binder/polymer (e.g. polypropylene)


2. Release of an inorganic acid (e.g. ammonium polyphosphate)


3. Carbonization (e.g. of polyalcohols)


4. Gas formation by the spumific compound (e.g. melamine)


5. Foaming of the mixture


6. Solidification through cross-linking reactions

The picture below shows how the foam looks in the end. This coating expanded from a 1 mm layer to a 100 mm foam.