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07/Sep/2022
The Working Group „Flame Retardants“ brings together many participants from the flame retardants value chain and celebrates Prof. Manfred Döring’s well-deserved retirement
Finally, the meeting of the working group “F
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12/Jul/2022
“ECOFRAM" addresses the need for more sustainable flame retardants and showcases developments from science and industry
The International Conference on Eco-Friendly Flame
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22/Apr/2022
RoHS: Impact study finds positive results, review process has started
The importance of RoHS, the restriction of hazardo
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06/Jan/2022
“Fire Resistance in Plastics" addresses the need for flame retardants for e-mobility – halogen-free solutions in clear focus
The Fire Resistance in Plastics is one of the most
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23/Dec/2021
FRPM 2023, European Meeting on Fire Retardant Polymeric Materials, 26.-29.06.2023
  FRPM 21, one of the most important scien
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15/Dec/2021
New pinfa brochure on innovative fire safety in transportation
Transport vehicles increasingly rely on polymeric
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Intumescent flame retardant systems

Mode of action: formation of a voluminous, insulating protective layer through carbonization and simultaneous foaming

Intumescent systems puff up to produce foams. They are used to protect combustible materials such as plastics or wood, and those like steel, which lose their strength when exposed to high temperatures, against the attack of heat and fire.

Basically, intumescent flame retardant systems consist of the following:
1. "Carbon" donors (e.g. polyalcohols such as starch, pentaerythritol)
2. Acid donors (e.g. ammonium polyphosphate)
3. Spumific compounds (e.g. melamine)


Process of intumescent mechanism


1. Softening of the binder/polymer (e.g. polypropylene)


2. Release of an inorganic acid (e.g. ammonium polyphosphate)


3. Carbonization (e.g. of polyalcohols)


4. Gas formation by the spumific compound (e.g. melamine)


5. Foaming of the mixture


6. Solidification through cross-linking reactions

The picture below shows how the foam looks in the end. This coating expanded from a 1 mm layer to a 100 mm foam.